In object-oriented programming (OOP), an object is a self-contained unit of data and behavior. An object represents a specific instance of a class, which is a blueprint or template for creating objects.
An object has two main characteristics:
- State: This refers to the data or information stored within the object, such as the values of its properties or attributes.
- Behavior: This refers to the actions or methods that the object can perform, such as the functions or procedures that it can execute.
In OOP, objects communicate with each other by sending messages, which are requests for an object to perform a specific behavior.
A real-time example of an object could be a car. A car object would have certain properties such as its make, model, and year, as well as behaviors such as starting the engine, accelerating, and braking. Each car object is an instance of a class, “car” which is a blueprint or template for creating car objects.
Another example would be a bank account, it would have properties like account number, account balance, account holder name and behavior like deposit, withdraw, and check balance. Each bank account object is an instance of class “bank account” which is a blueprint or template for creating bank account objects.
In OOP, classes are often used to create objects that are similar in nature, but have unique attributes and behaviors. In this way, objects can be reused and extended to create more complex systems.